Much of the attention among the public goes to the performance and reliability of companies’ autonomous driving technology. However, an equally important issue is global scalability. Most competitors use manually created HD maps, including Waymo. This will never work beyond a few geofence areas. Hence, only those with global maps are likely to commercially succeed. They could disrupt those without. This means Waymo and other companies such as Nvidia, Baidu, Amazon Zoox, Ford Argo AI and GM Cruise are also vulnerable to this risk.