Ford and VW join forces, and it seems no car company can go it alone

Traditional carmakers are not ready for what’s coming. Unfamiliar technologies have breached the walls that held off challengers for more than a century. Electrification and autonomous vehicle software are forcing incumbents to master two new skills at once, while devaluing their most important expertise: building big vehicles with internal combustion engines. It’s no coincidence that Tesla, the only successful major new US automaker to arrive on the scene in decades, looks nothing like its competitors.